Sources on the History of Dialectics in China

Steve S. K. Chin, The Thought of Mao Tse-Tung: Form and Content, Hong Kong: Centre for Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 1979.

Joshua A. Fogel, “Ai Siqi: Professional Philosopher and Establishment Intellectual,” in Merle Goldman with Tiimothy Cheek and Carol Lee Hamrin, eds., China’s Intellectuals and the State: In Search of a New Relationship, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987.

Joshua A. Fogel, Ai Ssu-ch’i’s Contribution to the Development of Chinese Marxism, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987.

Carol Lee Hamrin, Alternatives withing Chinese Marxism 1955-1965: Yang Hsien-chen’s Theory of Dialectics, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1975.

Carol Lee Harmin, ed., “Yang Xianzhen’s Philosophic ‘Criminal Case’,” Chinese Law and Government, vol. 24 (1991), nos. 1-2 (Spring-Summer), 1-179.

Carol Lee Hamrin, “Yang Xianzhen: Upholding Orthodox Leninist Theory, in Carol Lee Hamrin and Timothy Cheek, eds., China’s Establishment Intellectuals, Armonk: M. E. Sharp, Inc., 1986.

Guo Jianning, Jainxin tansuo de zhexue guiji 1956 zhi 1966 nian Mao Zedong de zhexue sixiang yanjiu [Traces of Hard and Dangerous Explorations: A Philosophical Study of Mao Zedong Thought from 1956 to 1966], Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe, 1993.

Nick Knight, Marxist Philosophy in China: From Qu Qiubai to Mao Zedong, 1923 -1945, Dordrecht: Springer, 2005.

Nick Knight,  Li Da and Marxist Philosophy in China, Boulder: Westview Press, 1996.

Nick Knight, Mao Zedong on Dialectical Materialism: Writings on Philosophy, 1937, Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1990.


Nick Knight, Rethinking Mao: Explorations in Mao Zedong's Thought, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.

Nick Knight, ed., “The Philosophical Thought of Mao Zedong: Studies from China, 1981-1989,” Chinese Studies in Philosophy, vol. 23 (1992), nos. 3-4 (Spring-Summer), 1 - 283.


Kalpana Musra, From Post-Maoism to Post-Marxism: The Erosion of Offical Ideology in Deng's China, New York: Routledge, 1998.

Ram Naresh Sharma, Mao: The Man and His Thought, Patna: Janaki Prakashan, 1991, Chapter 2.

Yang Chungui, Zhongguo zhexue sishi nian: 1949 -1989 [40 Years of Chinese Philosophy], Zhonggong zhongyang dangxiao chubanshe, 1989.